||Broilers: Up to 25% in the starter feed and 20% in the finisher feed. Layers: 12-15%
||Large amounts of soybean meal may cause troubles from pasting up in which excreta sticks to the vent. This can lead to renal dysfunction due to retention of the urates which interferes with passing of the droppings. Soybean meal may also produce goiter
||May replace up to 50% of the soybean meal in the diets of broilers, but should not be fed in excess of 5% of the layer's diet.
||The high content of carotenoids will impart a deep yellow pigmentation of skin which is not desired by consumers
||2-3% for broilers and up to 10% for the layers.
||When large amount of cottonseed meal is fed to the layers, the gossypol found in greenish cast to egg yolks. Cyclopropenoic fatty acids, also present in cottonseed meal, will impart a pink color to egg whites on storage.
||3-5% for broilers and layers.
||Sunflower meal contains anti-nutritional components such as pectin's and arabinoxylans, which affect digestibility and bioavailability of protein. This product is also remarkably low in essential amino acids, and is high in chlorogenic acid content which
||2-5% for broilers and layers.
||Feeding of fishmeal in excess of the recommended level will lead to fishy flavor in meat and eggs. Also, the high cost and the low palatability of the fishmeal are important factors restricting